How to make a milk chiller

The people used a chest freezer

  • made a shelf of PVC pipe and hardware cloth
  • used a pond water fountain pump
  • put in a temperature control probe, where temperature can be set

Possible Agitator

Try an aquarium wavemaker

My Idea

make these to sell once we test it out... patent it Ok...

  • Chest freezer
  • Make the PVC shelf that is upon legs and the hardware cloth
  • Attach the milk line for the Simple pulse directly to quart jars, through the wall of the cooler to top of jars. 
  • Attach each jar to each other, so that they overflow into each other, but the jars are in agitating ice water
  • A small amount of ice is below the shelf and the pump is mounted wherever it needs to be. Maybe above shelf
  • Jars are inside wire division rack, so they don't tip over

Difference between salve, lotion, body butter, etc

Difference between butters, salves etc

also certification course





Body Butter

Butters Oils: vegetable, herbal, specialty seed   +/- Antioxidant
  •  Somebody kinds of butter have a small amount of wax, but not so much that they become a body balm
  • adds water and/or hydrosols and/or aloe vera gel into a butter formulation, the end product would technically be called an emulsion (water + oil), also known as a cream or lotion.  Creams/lotions also have emulsifier like wax

Whipped Body Butter

Butters +/- Oils: Vegetable, herbal   +/- Antioxidant
  •  These are basically body kinds of butter that have been whipped with a beater/mixer. Whipped body butters do not contain beeswax

Body Balm

Butters Oils: Vegetable, herbal  Wax: Beesewax or other + Antioxidant
  •  Body balms typically contain beeswax or other wax (e.g. candelilla or carnauba). An antioxidant may be indicated, particularly if using polyunsaturated fatty oils


 --  Oils: herbal Sometimes other vegetable oils  Beeswax  can add antioxidant if you want
  •  salves usually combination of herbal oils and wax
  • If butters put into the salve = body balm or butter, depending upon amount of wax

How to make a general salve:

  1. Clean space where you will be making a salve.
  2. Clean all utensils, double boiler, and bowls or measuring cups you will be using to make a salve.
  3. Fill the bottom pot of double boiler with 1/4 of water. Place top pan on. Place double boiler onto medium heat and heat water to just below boiling.
  4. Add in wax and non-heat-sensitive vegetable oils and herbal oils.
  5. Stir ingredients together until well combined.
  6. Once all beeswax (or other wax used) is melted, remove from heat and add in heat-sensitive vegetable oils (e.g. Rosehip seed oil, Borage, Evening primrose, Sunflower – linoleic acid-rich, etc.).
  7. If the salve has begun to harden, place on the heat until all is melted and remove immediately. Be sure to dry bottom off before pouring!
  8. Add in essential oils. (*Pre-make synergy in a little glass measuring cup (5ml) or small bowl.
  9. Using a fork or stirring rod, stir essential oils quickly into salve mixture.
  10. Pour salve into jars or tins. *If, while pouring, the salve begins to harden, again, simply place the pot back onto the hot pot (can turn the heat back on if needed).
  11. Place cap on jars or tins.
  12. Allow the salve to harden.
  13. Check salves to make sure you like the texture and that the aroma is of desired strength based upon the goals of the salve.
  14. Create labels for your salves and be sure to include the full list of ingredients. If using tins, you can put ingredients on the bottom and the name of the product on the top.
  15. Once salves are labeled, they are ready to use!

When should you use a different dilution?

  • For general skin salves: I would recommend a 2 – 3%. There is no exact dilution because it will depend on which essential oils you are using but in general, this dilution would be good. Play around with it by making a small amount of salve (1/4 cup oil to 1/4 cup of beeswax makes 2 – 1-ounce tins and 1 – 1/2 ounce tin).
  • For respiratory system (congestion or to expand breathing): I would recommend a 3-4% dilution.
  • For pain salves: I would recommend a 3-5% dilution.

A good salve can be the base to many amazing recipes. Similar to the texture of petroleum jelly, you can customize this salve with essential oils to meet your needs. Try adding doTERRA Breathe® to help maintain feelings of clear airways*, doTERRA Serenity® or Lavender to promote a good night rest, or Citrus Bliss® for an invigorating moisturizer.
½ cup grapeseed oil
½ cup almond oil
2 tablespoons beeswax
½ tablespoon vitamin E oil
5 drops Lavender oil
5 drops Cypress oil 
5 drops Melaleuca oil 
  1. Melt beeswax in double boiler.
  2. Once melted, add grapeseed, almond, and vitamin E oil until melted.
  3. Once combined, set aside for two to three minutes.
  4. Add essential oils and stir.
  5. Pour in a container and allow to set for two hours.
  6. To use, apply to skin or on chest.


Every Evolving

Here at Northern Dawn we are ever-evolving to better and better ways to improve our methods of handling the milk.  Why?  To bring you nutritious milk that is far above Utah Grade A Raw Milk standards. We have worked around the food industry for over 20 years, and take safe food handling extremely seriously. Our current system starting the summer of 2017:

  • Daily the milk utensils and jars are disinfected using the .... Wash, rinse, sanitize.... system that we learn through taking the Utah Department of Health Food Handler's permit
  • Jars and utensils are air-dried
  • After each doe is milk, the milk is strained into a disinfected quart jar
  • Once the jar is nearly full of milk (doesn't take long), the jar is placed into an ice water bath for quick chilling

Utah Rule R70-330, Raw Milk for Retail licensing code

  1.  Milk temperature - 50° within the first hour of milking and 41° after two hours.  Our milk is measured to easily fall within this categoryWe do temperature test and record our temperatures and times on a regular basis.  Milk_temp_90min_freezer
  2. Bacterial standards for raw milk shall be a bacterial count of no more than 20,000 per ml. and a coliform count of no more than 10 per ml.  We plan to begin testing for bacteria soon.
  3. Somatic Cell Count not to exceed 1,500,000 cells per ml for goats.  Our milk is tested for Somatic Cell Count once per month through the Dairy Herd Improvement program.  There are at least three ways that I know of to test for this.  1) State or other laboratory testing 2) Dairy Herd Improvement testing 3) Home quick testing plates.   Our Milk easily falls within the correct Somatic Cell Count allowances.

UT Agriculture Temperature 50° one hour, 41° two hours

Northern Dawn Herd Record


Outside Temperature

Milk Temp at time of cooling, after straining

Temperature one hour

Temperature 2 hours





(1/2 hour) 55° near jar neck 52° in middle 40° one hour


I just decided to test in different parts of the jar.  Didn't have enough ice either, Just a think skim of ice, so basically cold water. Half time that state requires for time vs temperature.  Above Grade A standards for time vs temperature

1/26/2018 30° 60° 40° 40° In Dec 2017 we began straining our milk immediately after milking each doe. Then once the quart jar is full (takes very little time to fill it), the jar is placed into the ice water.  Today we had just a small skim of ice, so not much ice water. Still, the milk was chilled to 40° in one hour, maybe less. We temperature tested in one hour.
 5/21/2016     41°  same  
 5/22/2016     41° same  
5/23/2016     40° same  


Utah Agriculture Somatic Cell Count Limit 1,500,000 cells per ml

Northern Dawn Herd Amounts


Test Method

Somatic Cell Count

April 25 2016 Rocky Mountain DHI Average 284,733... Main herd 153,230  (easily meet requirements

Purpose of Page

Are you looking for clean, healthy and great tasting goat milk?  You've come to the right place.  Mmmm.... good. We are sharing ideas for you to evaluate the milk that you obtain for your family.  We at Northern Dawn hold to very strict standards of testing our milk, sanitizing our jars and milk equipment, cooling and cleaning.


Our Udder Preparation

While there are many methods of caring for the doe's udder, we have a very specific program for our udders.  We base our system on several types of research and information.  One very interesting bit of information comes from OMAFRA.  Our Utah Dairy Manager gave some other great information.  At any rate, here is our procedure. Because we hand milk, as well as milk with a hand milking machine, we believe the entire udder must be clean.  However, in cleaning the udder and teats, we also dry them before milking.  We also take care not to get the udder saturated with water while cleaning it.

  • Clean the udder with an approved single teat wipe.  Currently, we use Milk Check Teat wipe. We just love the convenience of this method.
  • Dry the entire udder and teat surface with a single-use towel before opening the teat orifice and milking.
  • Clean the end of the teat to remove any bacteria.  Squirt out a few squirts to check for milk problems and also get rid of any bacteria on the end of the teat. We believe the cleaning of the teat and udder must be done before opening up any milking so that no bacteria enters the teat canal.
  • Our hands are sanitized between does, with a therapeutic grade essential oil blended hand wash that is a known antibacterial hand wash.


 Why we choose this method

We believe that washing the udder with soap and water can make it hard to ensure that the udder and hands are completely dry before milking the doe.  Milking with dry hands and dry udder is vital in keeping bacteria out of the milk.

Various udder cleaning methods

There are various methods of cleaning the udder, that are employed in the dairy world.  Some of those are described through OMAFRA

  • Dry wiping with cloth or hand with multi-use or single-use cloths.  This method seems good, but it's not effective at getting rid of bacteria or dirt. 
  • Washing with hot soap and water.  This works, but are the bacteria actually being cleared away from the udder and teat surface?  Also the danger of not getting the udder clean.  This is not mentioned in the OMAFRA article.
  • Cleaning teat surface and only cleaning the entire udder if the udder is dirty. This is done with a udder or teat dip solution or teat wipe to remove bacteria and dirt. Then the skin surface must be completely dried with single-use towel.  If the udder is dirty, then, of course, it must be cleaned.
  • Teat dipping and drying it off, with a teat dip solution, is another effective method.


 Next up... Milking

  • We either milk into a stainless steel sanitized bowel or using our hand milker.
  • Milk is strained quickly after milk.  We either use the best milk filters we have found yet; Milk Check Milk filters or Gerber flannel wipes.  Both of these have excellent sediment retention and fast milk flow. This, we believe, is something that is vital for great tasting healthy milk. 


Then we have to chill the milk fast

There are multiple ways to chill milk.  Fast chilling is vital to keeping it fresh-tasting for a long period of time, but also in keeping the bacteria counts low.  We currently chill the milk in the freezer for 90 minutes, which meets state regulations for raw milk.  We do periodically temperature test our milk. In the near future, we plan to quick chill it using an ice water bath surrounding the milk jars.


... This page will be moved to its own domain soon ....

Utah County Utah Chapter for 

Local Food Act

Problems preventing a viable food or farm business to serve the customer who needs my service

There is a growing number of small farms and food producers across the state of Utah.  We have laws and an organization that is supposed to protect the rights of all sizes and types of farms and the laws are to protect the rights of small food producers.  The problem is that many of the laws are made to protect wealthy farms and food producers. The small producer of food cannot often afford to even get their facility started legal, because of horrendous regulations.

  1. I started trying to become licensed for dairy about 4 years ago.  While UDAF is very cooperative, some of the laws and practices are silly, horribly expensive or controversial.  The inspectors are not in harmony with each other, making it impossible and scary to know if you are legal in how you want to put your facility in or not. One inspector might say you can do such and such. Another will say "No, you have to do it this way."  Some of the inspectors say that raw milk dairies do not need a Food Handler's Permit. However, the state does require a Food Handler's Permit for raw milk dairies because they are handling milk/food.  So contradiction..
  2. It is legal to transport licensed raw milk in Utah, only to an off-site store IF the producer owns at least 51% of the profits of that store.  Otherwise, it's not legal to transport licensed raw milk.  So my question is, "How does a money figure produce food safety or not?"  LOL.  Some of the inspectors of Raw Milk dairies will tell the producer, "If your bacteria counts are good, then you don't have to clean those udders and disinfect them. You don't have to shave all the long hair off them." Yet, Utah law says that licensed Raw Milk Dairies must handle their facility, dairy animals and milk using the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO).   What some of the inspectors are saying above is causing that dairy to be in direct violation with the Utah Law.  contradiction again....
  3. Its legal and safe to sell cheese if the milk used is pasteurized. Yet think about it.... Cheese is usually made in an open pot.  Bacteria can get in the mixture, no matter if the milk is pasteurized or not.  Its called propaganda against raw milk and raw milk safety...
  4. The cost of creating this business threatens to render my family bankrupt. But are all these requirements really necessary?
  5. Big businesses in my industry of dairy and food want to raid my facility and make me just 'go away'.  Bottom line, we little food businesses are taking business away from the big guys. Why, because our foods are often actually healthier and don't usually cause lasting hidden diseases like cancer. The bottom line is we care about our customer and their problems that they are seeking help with.  How can we help them, rather than just making my customer a number.


Does this scenario fit you?

Does this fit you and your problems in starting your farm or food service?  I think it fits most of us.

  • You have the vision of who your customer is and what their struggles are in obtaining that wholesome food she dreams of to give her family a sustainable healthy life
  • You know and understand your customer's struggles and desires
  • You even know how to produce this food safely for your customer
  • You have the 'big boys' or having a tug of war with you because they want to raid your facility and make you just go away. The big boys just 'want it all for themselves'
  • You say, "No way!  I know how to create these products and help my customer to be of great importance, not just another number."
  • Government regulations are stifling and ridiculous, preventing you from doing what you need to do
  • You know exactly what I need to do to share my product, but every time I get the money to finish my facility, the money must be used for personal needs so you don't lose your hoe
  • You are exhausted working a full-time job and trying to get your very necessary business available to the customer
  • You are living below the poverty level on one meal a day
  • Are you pulling your hair out, because you are always just short of reaching your goal?


Work Together

Let us all work together and figure this out.  We can do this together. Come join us as a consumer, producer or just as someone interested. Together we can survive and win this battle to give a sustainable healthy food source so that we can all prevent those serious hidden diseases and live a healthier cleaner lifestyle.